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Enoch West

Enoch West

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Enoch West was born in Hucknall Torkard, Nottinghamshire, on 31st March, 1886. He worked as a coal-miner and played local football until signing for Sheffield United in 1903. He failed to make the first-team and so in June 1905 joined Nottingham Forest in the Second Division of the Football League.

In his first season with his new club he scored 14 goals. The following season he contributed the same number and played an important role in helping Nottingham Forest win the Second Division championship.

West was in outstanding form in the 1907-08 season. That year he was the First Division leading scorer with 26 goals in 35 games. West's total included four goals in one match against Southampton and hat-tricks against Chelsea and Blackburn Rovers. Over a five year period West had scored 100 goals in 183 cup and league appearances.

In June 1910 West signed for Manchester United. He replaced Jimmy Turnbull in the attack and had a great season scoring 19 goals in 35 games. West formed a great partnership with Sandy Turnbull and together they scored more than half of the team's goals. On the last Saturday of the season Aston Villa led Manchester United by one point. United had to play third-place Sunderland at Old Trafford whereas Aston Villa had to go to Liverpool.

Manchester United won their game 5-1. Charlie Roberts told the Manchester Saturday Post what happened next: "At the end of the game our supporters rushed across the ground in front of the stand to wait for the final news from Liverpool. Suddenly a tremendous cheer rent the air and was renewed again and again and we knew we were the champions once again." Aston Villa had been beaten 3-1 and Manchester United had won their second championship in four years.

In April 1911 West was involved in an incident at Aston Villa. As a result he was suspended for the first four matches of the 1911-12 season. He scored two goals on his first game on 30th September against Blackburn Rovers. Despite missing these games he was once again leading scorer with 23 goals in 38 cup and league games. However, his fellow strikers, Sandy Turnbull and Harold Halse, were disappointing and Manchester United finished in only 13th position.

West was again the club's leading scorer in the 1912-13 season. His 21 league goals helped Manchester United to finish in 4th place. However, he lost form and only scored 6 in 30 (1913-14) and 9 in 33 (1914-15).

On 2nd April, 1915, Manchester United beat Liverpool 2-0. Afterwards, bookmakers claimed that they had taken a great deal of money on the 7-1 odds offered on a 2-0 United victory. They suspected that the game had been fixed and pointed out that late in the game, the Liverpool player, Jackie Sheldon, missed a penalty. The bookmakers decided not to pay out on the result and offered a £50 reward for information that would unmask the conspirators.

The Sporting Chronicle newspaper took up the story and claimed that they discovered evidence that players on both sides had got together to concoct a 2-0 scoreline. The newspaper also argued that some of the players had large bets on the result.

The Football League announced it would carry out its own investigation into the case. It published its report in December 1915. It concluded that "a considerable amount of money changed hands by betting on the match and... some of the players profited thereby." Three players in the Manchester United squad were banned for life: Enoch West, Sandy Turnbull and Arthur Whalley. Only West actually played in the game. The same sentence was imposed on four Liverpool players: Jackie Sheldon, Tom Fairfoul, Tommy Miller and Bob Pursell. An eighth player, Laurence Cook, who played for Stockport County, was also convicted of being a member of the betting ring.

It was suggested that if the men joined the armed forces their punishment would be rescinded. All the men, except for Enoch West, who protested his innocence, signed up. After the war six of the men were allowed to play football in the Football League. The exception was Sandy Turnbull who had been killed on the Western Front in 1917. Arthur Whalley was seriously wounded at Passchendale but recovered to play in 23 games in the 1919-20 season.

Enoch West contested the sentence several times in court, but the ban was only lifted in 1945 as part of a general amnesty, when he was 59 years old.

Enoch West - History

Wood County History Photography & Scenery

This Site Is For The History Of Wood County, Parkersburg, & Early West Virginia

This Website Wood County History Photography & Scenery wchps.net is owned by Mackey's Antique Clock Repair and has no Connection at all with Wood County Historical And Preservation Society or Wood County or the City of Parkersburg or State of West Virginia.

This Site is for the History and Old Pictures of Parkersburg & Wood County and Early West Virginia. I have 7 websites of the History & Old Pictures. These websites is stuffed full of History and has Thousands of Old Pictures , T his Site will have all the links to all the pages on 6 of the websites for you to enjoy Mackey's Antiques & Clock Repair has way Over 2500 Old Pictures of Wood County, Parkersburg & Surrounding Area, over 300 Law Enforcement pictures, Bickel Pictures, old Parkersburg Movie Theaters, lot of History Pages and Lots More. it is Stuffed Full of History and Old Pictures The Tygart School Reunion Website has over 250 Old School Class Pictures of Tygart & South Side School Plus all the Reunion Pictures, The Marrtown Reunion Website has over 500 old Pictures plus Pictures of the Reunions. The Parkersburg Viscose has over 300 Viscose Pictures including the 1926 picture of the Plant under construction and the first fibers produced at the plant. lot of pictures from the 1940s and 50s see all the links below.

In a previous article, I discussed a few of the biblical passages that, according to some people, teach that the earth is flat. There I made the point that the Bible doesn’t endorse any cosmology, but instead gives only bare details regarding cosmology that could be understood several ways. For instance, Genesis 1:1 states that in the beginning God created heaven and earth. The Day Two account (Genesis 1:6–8) tells us that God made the rāqîa (firmament or expanse or sky), and that God called it “heaven.” On Day Four (Genesis 1:16–19), God made the luminaries (astronomical bodies) that he placed in the rāqîa . These statements briefly describe God’s creative acts during Creation Week, but they hardly teach any particular cosmology, such as geocentrism or heliocentrism, whether the earth is flat or a sphere, or whether the universe is expanding or static. God exemplified his wisdom in not endorsing any of man’s cosmologies in his Word. If God had done otherwise, it would have needlessly exposed the Bible to ridicule in nearly every age, for man’s cosmologies have changed continually over time.

Nevertheless, throughout the ages, people have chosen to understand these verses from the creation account, as well as other verses throughout the Bible, in terms of the cosmology of their day. Examples include the Septuagint’s translation of rāqîa as stereoma, and Thomas Aquinas’ endorsement of the Ptolemaic model. The first example ultimately led to the poor translation of rāqîa as “firmament,” which in turn led to much confusion (including flat-earth movement today). The second example resulted in the Galileo affair. Even today we live with the consequences of both mistakes. This should be a lesson to all of us not to read into Scripture (eisegesis) our preferred cosmology. However, flat-earthers have failed to learn this lesson, because they insist that their understanding of biblical passages teach that the earth is flat.

Where do flat-earthers get this notion? Contrary to common misconception, for the two millennia of the Christian age, the church did not teach that the earth is flat. Depictions of an enclosed dome over a flat earth (Figure 1) supposedly taught in the Bible did not start appearing until the 19th century. But it was Bible critics, not Christians, who introduced these diagrams. Only in recent decades have Christians fallen for this lame attack on the authority of Scripture and foolishly begun reproducing these figures as if this is what the Bible taught all along. Unfortunately, some Christians of late have swallowed this faux history (and much more false history) and begun proclaiming flat earth as truth in a misguided attempt to defend the Bible .

Enoch Bales Jr. 1922-1944

"Freedom has its life in the hearts, the actions, the spirit of men and so it must be daily earned and refreshed:else like a flower cut from its life-giving roots, it will wither and die."
Dwight D. Eisenhower

Army Air Corps Technical Sergeant Enoch Bales Jr. (known to his family as "junior') was born at Richlands, Virginia, on Independence Day:July 4:1922. The only son of Stanley E. and Magdalina ("Maggie") Marshall, he grew up in McDowell County, West Virginia, where the family relocated early in his life. He received most of his education in the schools of Welch in McDowell County, although a memorial service notice for T/Sgt. Bales in the Welch Daily News (May 25, 1948) reports that he graduated from high school in Cumberland, Kentucky, where his family lived for a short period of time before returning to West Virginia. One thing that is known of his education is that he was a drum major for his high school band.

According to U.S. Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946, Enoch Bales Jr. registered for the army at Huntington, West Virginia, on July 17, 1943, at which time he would have been twenty-one years old. His enlistment record indicates that he had completed four years of high school was single, without dependents and his civilian occupation was in the category of "foremen, services amusements." T/Sgt. Bales received his diploma and gunner's wings at Harlingen Army Air Field in Texas, with additional training at Salt Lake City, Utah.

When those in service have been missing one year plus one day, they are presumed dead, and Mrs. Marshall was officially notified on May 25, 1945, of the loss of her son. Later, she planned an "impressive service" at "beautiful Woodlawn Cemetery near Bramwell" for Memorial Day of 1948. There she had placed an obelisk, draped in black, and inscribed with the name of T/Sgt. Bales and an aircraft on one side and the names of his fellow servicemen on another. Families of two other crew members:Emmett and Rankin:indicated they would attend the "solemn" service (Source: Welch Daily News, May 25, 1948).

And that might have been the end of the story:Sgt. Bales was an only child and unmarried, without children, whose parents were long since deceased. Like so many of his World War II compatriots, he might have been forgotten. But in January 2013 the story picks up once again. Russell Broxterman, who has a great deal of experience in metal detection, was searching the old Topeka Army Air Field in Kansas looking for World War II relics, when just below the surface he found an extremely shiny dogtag. The condition of the tag led him to believe it was of recent origin, but his curiosity was piqued, and he enlisted the help of a friend with experience in doing genealogical searches online. His friend informed him that the dogtag was that of T/Sgt. Bales, who went missing during the war, and that Bales was an only child. Still, going on the fact that Bales was from McDowell County, he contacted the public library, where cooperative librarians were able to provide the Welch Daily News story about the 1948 memorial service. They also connected Broxterman with James "Coney" Bales, whose father was a cousin to Junior. Eventually, the story would lead to Shelby Jean Clark, Maggie Marshall's niece, who lived near her aunt during the last years of Mrs. Marshall's life and looked after her affairs. Coney Bales felt that Shelby Jean should be the one to receive the dogtag. (Source: Bill Archer, "Dog Tag Detectives: W. VA. Family Reunited with Relic Reminder of Supreme WWII Sacrifice," Bluefield Daily Telegraph Online, accessed March 14, 2013, http://bdtonline.com/local/x503853849/Dog-tag-detectives/.)

Reminiscing about her cousin's and her family, Mrs. Clark stated that her father and his mother were brother and sister in a very close-knit family. Maggie was the oldest daughter, and she assumed the role of "second mother" to her younger brothers. As the daughter of one of those brothers, Shelby Jean enjoyed a special lifelong relationship with her aunt, becoming a surrogate daughter when Maggie was left childless at Enoch's death.

Mrs. Clark noted that, although Stanley Marshall was a stepfather, he always treated Enoch as though the latter were his biological son. In West Virginia, the family lived in Roderfield (near Welch, McDowell County), where Stanley was a coal miner, but in the early 1950s, they relocated to Staunton, Virginia, where he worked for American Safety Razor.

Shelby Jean fondly recalled Junior, characterizing him as "one of the finest young men I have ever known.a real gentleman." She went on to say he was "tall, thin, and handsome, with wavy hair" and he was "sweet." He was also known as a very good dancer family lore has it that when he joined the military and went to dances, while he was dancing with one girl, all the other girls lined up to dance with him. When the family lived in West Virginia, he had a black dog he had named "Coalie."

Mrs. Clark told a story about a party her mother and father gave for Junior when he returned home on leave after his training. At that time he confided to his Uncle Shorty that he had a strange feeling that he wouldn't make it through the war. Shelby Jean indicated that her aunt took Junior's death very hard and never got over it Maggie Marshall would later lose her brother Marvin in the war, so she was grieving for her two losses at the same time.

Maggie Marshall would spend the last ten years of her life combating two serious illnesses. As the person with the closest emotional ties to her aunt, it fell to Shelby Jean, who had lived nearby in Virginia, stopping by on a regular basis and living with her the last six months of her life, to disperse her aunt's personal items. Maggie had kept all of Enoch's possessions in a trunk, but deliberately "lost" the key so she wouldn't have to deal with the memories. On her death, the trunk was pried open, and Mrs. Clark still has "the little white gown he was christened in as a baby," while her daughter has the desk he used when he was in the first or second grade.

Although T/Sgt. Enoch Bales Jr. never married and had no brothers or sisters, he is remembered. His mother ensured that remembrance when she placed the memorial stone in Woodlawn Cemetery, but he is also remembered by his cousin and her family, as well as the extended Bales family. While he may have had a premonition of his death, he could not have predicted the legacy that survives him.

Family information provided in an interview (March 28, 2013) with T/Sgt. Bales' cousin Shelby Jean Clark. Additional family information provided by James "Coney" Bales, whose father was also a cousin. Article prepared by Patricia Richards McClure.

Fifty years on, what is the legacy of Enoch Powell’s ‘rivers of blood’ speech?

In the aftermath of Enoch Powell’s inflammatory 1968 “rivers of blood” speech, which split the nation and instantly became one of modern British history’s most divisive addresses, the fallout was swift and fierce. Protesters took to the streets in support of Powell’s backing for the repatriation of immigrants. Denunciations appeared in newspaper editorials attacking his “appeal to racial hatred” and Powell himself was cast out of the Conservative shadow cabinet, effectively ending his political ambitions. Also caught up in the collateral damage, however, was a small school in his Wolverhampton constituency.

In the run-up to his speech, Powell made one of his most controversial claims – that a constituent had told him that his child was the only white pupil in their class. West Park primary school was not named, but with its high proportion of ethnic minority students it was soon labelled as the school in question.

Almost overnight, it was placed on the frontline of a national debate about immigration, integration and race relations.

Newspapers began trying to speak to parents, staff and children. Television cameras were trained on the gates. The headmistress was confronted in the library by a group of parents claiming that the white children were suffering because teachers were having to concentrate on teaching English to the arrivals. The unwelcome attention intensified when Powell delivered his notorious Birmingham address, prophesying doom as he warned that the country had gone “literally mad” in its embrace of mass migration.

Yet half a century on from Powell’s polemic, the school he pitched into a media firestorm has refused to shy away from its association with him. Instead it has harnessed Powell’s toxic legacy, deploying it as the inspiration for an extraordinary project examining the school’s past, educating its diverse intake on the immigration debate and turning the school into a champion of the kind of integration Powell had dismissed.

“It seemed like it was really time to celebrate the diversity of the community and be proud of it,” says headteacher Briony Jones. “Powell’s speech drew a lot of negative attention to the school. The local community was up in arms. We thought it was too huge a story not to maximise as a rich project that the children could learn from.”

Pupils at West Park primary in Wolverhampton rehearse a play marking the 50th anniversary of Enoch Powell’s ‘rivers of blood’ speech. Photograph: Andrew Fox/The Observer

Over the past six months, pupils ditched their planned history curriculum and began studying old footage of the school, looking at old newspaper headlines and talking to former pupils and experts on Powell and his legacy. Teachers have not airbrushed out the ugliness the school faced. Pupils heard how, on the very first day its gates opened, children faced racial abuse from students at the neighbouring grammar school. A former pupil came in to talk about the day that the first black family moved into her street – something she treated with fear, she explained, because she had been brought up to mistrust immigrants.

They have also heard the stories of more recent arrivals – one man told them how he fled Iraq locked in the boot of a car. Another brought in the shoes that still bear the marks of the barbed wire he had to climb to make it across the border.

“These children will go off to secondary schools, know what racism is, understand the reasons people migrate and ask challenging questions,” Jones says. “We’re equipping them to live in modern-day Britain. They’ve listened to harrowing stories and some have harrowing stories of their own. How could we ignore that?”

The “West Park Welcomes the World” project has culminated in a play, devised and performed by the pupils, that tells the story of Powell and Wolverhampton’s postwar immigration. Shadow puppetry, contemporary footage, music and challenging episodes from the school’s past all feature. The play will be performed next weekend at an anti-racism conference held to mark the 50th anniversary of Powell’s address.

It has been accompanied by initiatives designed to bridge the gap between newly arrived families and the current students. Young interpreters are allocated to help new children settle in. A group of “parent ambassadors” make new families feel welcome. West Park has recently been awarded “School of Sanctuary” status, an award handed out by the City of Sanctuary charity in recognition of its work on integration.

West Park’s efforts attracted the attention of the British Future thinktank, which has examined the legacy of Powell and the challenges that remain in a new report, Many Rivers Crossed, published on Monday. It highlights a strong generational divide over Powell’s impact. For younger Britons, Powell is almost an irrelevance. According to polling commissioned by British Future, less than a fifth of under-34s (18%) can pick Powell’s name from a list when asked who is associated with the phrase “rivers of blood”, compared with 82% of those aged over 65.

A majority (59%) think race relations have improved, saying that there was more prejudice in 1968. However, a third of black and minority ethnic (BAME) respondents said they had experienced racism in the street. Only 17% of BAME respondents had experienced prejudice online, but the figure rose to 27% of 18-24s.

Children playing at West Park primary in 1968. Photograph: Chris Ware/Getty Images

In the report, senior politicians reveal the impact that the long shadow of Powell’s speech has cast on them. “I came to the UK from working in east Africa that year with my wife – Olympia – who was east African Asian,” Vince Cable, the Liberal Democrat leader, explains. “There was an ugly climate of racism and rejection which lingered for years afterwards. Gradually, I sensed, race relations improved – at least in the more cosmopolitan big cities.

“Until two years ago I felt positive that the legacy of Enoch Powell’s poisonous and pessimistic rhetoric had been buried. Now I am not so sure. The ‘immigration panic’ – albeit mainly directed at white east Europeans – and Brexit have now brought some dangerous xenophobia back to the surface.”

Senior Conservatives are eager to take on Powell’s claims. Asked what he would say to Powell now, Sajid Javid, the communities secretary, gleefully points out the political progress in Wolverhampton. “Your old seat is now represented by Eleanor Smith MP, a former nurse and a woman of African Caribbean heritage who is as British as you or, indeed, me,” he says. “I’m certain the irony won’t be lost on you. Over the past 50 years, our country has undoubtedly become fairer, and despite setbacks BAME communities are among the highest-achieving in our schools, public life and the private sector. So we have made real progress. But not nearly enough. While BAME employment rates are at a record high, less than 3.5% of people occupying the three most senior positions in FTSE 100 companies are from ethnic minorities. We have much more to do.”

Some Conservatives believe the party’s continuing failure to win over BAME voters is an existential threat. Andrew Cooper, the Tory peer and David Cameron’s former pollster, says his party did worse among BAME voters at the last election than Donald Trump did in 2016.

“Since the Brexit referendum the Conservative party has too often looked and sounded like an English Nationalist movement,” he writes. “In 2017, for the second election running, the Tories lost ground among non-white voters while increasing its support in the country as a whole.

“The whiteness of the Tory party’s appeal means that it struggles to win in constituencies where the BAME population is 30% or higher: it currently holds just one such seat. Before 1987 there were no constituencies with more than 30% BAME population. By the next general election it is projected that there will be more than 120 such seats. Unless something changes, before long there just won’t be enough white voters in the electorate for the Conservative party to be able to win.”

British Future’s research suggests that, while race relations in Britain may have evolved since the 1960s, some serious issues clearly remain. There is a strong expectation among younger voters that there is further to go in dealing with racial prejudice. Among ethnic minorities, two-thirds (66%) of over-65s and 73% of 55-64s feel that racial prejudice was worse 50 years ago. Among younger people from ethnic minorities, about half think things were worse back then. However, 22% of those aged 18 to 24 think it may have been about the same and 18% think things were better then.

There is also concern that Britain’s Muslim citizens are the ones now facing the most prejudice. Most people (56%) said the group face “a lot” of prejudice and a further third (32%) said they face a little. Only 4% said they face no prejudice at all.

Enoch West - History

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4. Dr. THOMAS WEST , ( Francisl ), b. 1646 in Plymouth or Duxbury, Mass. is the ancestor of all of the name on the Vineyard, and the account of him in Vol. II, Annals of T., pp. 25-7, contains all the facts about him or his antecedents known to the author. Nothing has since been learned to embellish that account nor has the identity of his wife, ELIZABETH _____ been discovered. [Note: See also Francis West of Duxbury by Carlton Prince West for more information about Thomas West and his ancestry.] His will dated 15 Jan. 1698 was pro. 11 Oct. 1706. [They are buried in the West Tisbury Village Cemetery.] They had the following named children:

10. ELIZABETH,3 b. ( 1678 ) m. (1) JOHN MILLARD (2) JONATHAN SABIN 25 Mch. 1718.
11. ABIGAIL, b. ( 1680 ) m. JOSHUA WEEKS (100).
12. ABNER, b. 9 June 1683.
13. RUTH, b. ( 1685 ) m. EDWARD CARTWRIGHT.
14. THOMAS, b. ( 1687 ).
15. PETER, b. ( 1689 ) res. T., planter rem. to North Carolina and prob. d. there 1751.
16. WILLIAM, b. ( 1691 ) prob. d. y. after 1706.
17. MARY, b. 1692 m. JOHN COTTLE (31) 3 Dec. 1717.
18. SACKFIELD, b. 1694 res. Yarmouth, Mass. physician d. 12 Sept. 1778 m. (1) MARY HOWES 7 Apr. 1715 (2) RUTH JENKINS 7 May 1729 (3) HANNAH BACON 1778. His son, Rev. Samuel4 West, b. 3 Mch. 1729-30 H. C. 1754, was the well known pastor of Dartmouth, Mass.
19. JUDAH, b. ( 1696 ) res. Plymouth, Mass. shipwright m. BETHIAH KEEN of Pembroke, Mass. 3 Sept. 1718, by whom he had 13 children and descendants resided in that locality.

12. ABNER WEST , ( Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 9 June 1683 res. T., carpenter m. Mrs. JANE (Look) (11) COTTLE 17 Nov. 1707 (wid. of John), who was b. 24 Dec. 1680 and d. about 1765 at her son's residence in Rochester, Mass. Abner West's will 9 Oct. 1755 was pro. 13 Mch. 1756 and his death can be proximately placed near the latter date. [See Survey notes.] They had the following named children:

20. THOMAS,4 b. 26 Aug. 1708.
21. SILAS, b. 1 Aug. 1710.
22. SAMUEL, b. 11 July 1712 d. y.
23. ELISHA, b. 31 May 1714.
24. JANE, b. 25 Aug. 1716 m. WILLIAM WEST (30) 23 Dec. 1734.
25. PETER, b. 21 July 1718.
26. ELIZABETH, b. 20 July 1720 m. SETH DAGGETT (61) 23 Dec. 1734. [See Survey notes.]
27. ABIGAIL, b. 10 June 1722 d. 6 July 1741. [She is apparently buried at Crossways Cemetery.]
28. STEPHEN, b. ( 1724 ).

14. THOMAS WEST , ( Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. abt. 1687 res. T., mariner and pilot m. MARY PRESBURY (50) 29 Jan. 1712-13, who was b. 28 Aug. 1694 and d. 1728-30. He d. early in 1728 from exposure and disease contracted in the West Indies and death occurred in Rhode Island. His est. was adm. by his father-in-law, Stephen Presbury, 7 May 1728 and final decree in probate was rendered 3 Oct. 1732. [See Survey notes.] They had the following named children:

30. WILLIAM,. b. 4 Apr. 1714.
31. NATHAN, b. 17 Aug. 1715 d. before 1732.
32. THOMAS, b. 20 Feb. 1716-17 res. Sandwich, Mass. (1741), cordwainer m. HANNAH _____, by whom he had 7 children. He rem. to Dartmouth, Mass. (1747) and d. 12 Nov. 1770. She d. 28 Sept. 1798. Descendants resided in New Bedford and New Braintree, Mass.
33. LYDIA, b. 6 June 1718 m. DAVID MELVILLE 21 June 1739.
34. JOHN, b. 21 Oct. 1719 d. y.
35. MARY, b. 2 June 1721 m. TIMOTHY INGRAHAM 25 May 1746.
36. PAUL, b. ( 1723 ) res. Sandwich, Mass. 1744.
37. SETH, b. ( 1726 ) living 1732.

20. THOMAS WEST , ( Abner,3 Thomas,2 Frances1 ), b. 26 Aug. 1708 res. T., clergyman H. C. 1730, taking his master's degree 1759 preached to the Indians and prob. served as minister to the English at Homes Hole until his removal in 1753 to North Rochester, Mass. His pastorate in that town lasted over a quarter of a century, and it was terminated in 1781, when he was 73 years of age. He d. 14 July 1790 and his will 9 Dec. 1788 was pro. 5 Oct. 1790 (Plymo. Prob. XXXI, 274). [See Survey notes.] He was buried in North Rochester and his epitaph reads as follows:

Weep ye, my friends, for West is gone,
His glass of time cloth cease to run,
His active tongue and virtuous heart
Have ceased to act. They've done their part.
Although he's gone he yet doth live,
His soul immortal cloth survive.
He's now disrobed of earthly clay.
And shines in one eternal day.

He was married three times: (1) DRUSILLA PRESBURY (55), the mother of his children listed below all born in T., who was b. 1708 and d. 14 Mch. 1763 (2) Mrs. PRISCILLA (Sprague) HAMMOND 30 Nov. 1763 (wid. of Benjamin), who d. 23 Oct. 1778, and (3) DEBORAH _____.

80. DEBORAH,5 b. 18 Sept. 1729 d. 25 Jan. 1733-4. [She is buried in Crossways Cemetery.]
81. ABNER, b. 13 June 1731 d. prob. unm. (Rochester).
82. KETURAH, b. 14 Mch. 1733.
83. JOHN, b. 10 Apr. 1735.
84. THOMAS, b. 28 Feb. 1736-7 m. DEBORAH FREEMAN 17 Nov. 1757 res. Rochester.
85. SAMUEL, b. 18 Nov. 1738 clergyman H. C. 1761 settled in Needham, Mass. (1764), where he m. PRISCILLA PLYMPTON of Medfield, Mass. 23 Feb. 1769. He rem. to Boston (1789) and became pastor of the Hollis Street Church until his death 10 Apr. 1808. His will 1 Mch. 1790 was pro. 23 May 1808 (Suff. Prob. CVI, 289). In 1762, he served as chaplain to the frontier garrison at Fort Pownal, Me. We had issue, four children.
86. DEBORAH, b. 19 Oct. 1740 d. 29 Nov. 1747.
87. DRUSILLA, b. 22 Aug. 1742 m. ENOCH HAMMOND 7 Jan. 1762.
88. BENJAMIN, 11. 30 June 1744 d. y.
89. BENJAMIN, b. 28 Mch 1746 res. Charlestown, N. H. lawyer grad. H. C., 1768 m. MARY MACCARTY of Worcester 18 Jan. 1781 (2) Mrs. FRANCES GORDON of Amherst, N. H. 3 Sept. 1806.
90. SARAH, b. 12 May 1748 m. _____ FREEMAN.
91. TIMOTHY, b. ( 1750 ) m. LOIS DEXTER of Rochester 28 Aug. 1768 and rem. to Charlestown, N. H. He had issue, twelve children.

21. SILAS WEST , ( Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francisl ), b. 1 Aug. 1710 res. T., shipwright, rem. to Plymouth, Mass. (1737) and later to Nova Scotia. He m. MARY _____, who was b. 1712 and d. 25 Jan. 1762, prob. in Liverpool, N. S. [See Survey notes.] They had the following named children:

100. SARAH,5 b. 1 Jan. 1732-3 d. y.
101. JEAN, b. 6 June 1734 m. ROBERT HARLOW.
102. MARY, b. 8 Apr. 1736 m. ELKANAH WATERMAN 16 Oct. 1754.
103. SILAS, b. 3 Feb. 1738 m. REBECCA WETHERED.
104. JOHN, b. 18 NOV. 1739 m. PHEBE FREEMAN 25 May 1762.
105. CHARLES, b. 22 Oct. 1742.
106. BETHIAH, b. 20 July 1744.
107. WILLIAM, b. 20 July 1744.
108. RUTH, b. 1747 m. BENJAMIN LUCE (228) 11 June 1770.

23. ELISHA WEST , ( Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 31 May 1714 res. T., physician rem. to Boston (1738), returned to T. (1742) rem. to Newport, R. I. (1747), returned again to T. (1749), where he remained until his final removal after 1777 to Rochester, Mass. where he d. 8 Jan. 1790. He was called "trader" in 1774 and in 1756 he was in charge of the ferry, which plied between Homes Hole and the mainland. His will 7 Dec. 1789 was pro. 1 Feb. 1790 (Plymo. Prob. XXXI, 142). He m. (1) ABIGAIL GIBBS 23 June 1736, dau. of Barnabas and Abigail (Smith) Gibbs of Sandwich, Mass. (2) Mrs. MARY (Vincent) (25) SMITH 1779 (wid. of John (65) ). [See Survey notes.] They had the following named children:

110. ELISHA, b. 9 June 1738 d. y.
111. FRANCIS, b. 13 Mch. 1739 d. 8 Feb. 1760.
112. ABIGAIL, b. 26 June 1742 m. ISAAC DAGGETT (101) 17 Jan. 1759.
113. ELIZABETH, b. 24 Apr. 1744. m. STEPHEN WINSLOW of Rochester, Mass. 26 Oct. 1772.
114. SUSANNA, b. 3 Nov. 1746 m. (1) JOHN WHELDON (40) (2) MARK SNOW 3 Oct. 1774.
115. LYDIA, b. 29 Aug. 1747 m. JOHN CLAGHORN (90) 7 Feb. 1770.
116. ELISHA, b. 27 July 1749 rem. to New Bedford, Mass. where he d. 4 Feb. 1794. Will 20 Nov.1793 pro. 5 May 1794 (Bristol Prob. XXXII, 545) m. ANNA COFFIN 3 July 1769. Issue, four children.
117. GIBBS, b. 25 June 1751 prob. d. y.
118. JANE, b. 18 Mch. 1754 m. SHUBAEL DAVIS (32) 16 Oct. 1770.
119. MARY, b. 13 Mch. 1757 m. LEVI YOUNG.
120. ABNER, b. 13 Apr. 1759 said to have rem. to South Carolina. Served in Sea Coast Defence 1776.
121. FRANCIS, b. 25 July 1761 m. KETURAH FREEMAN res. Calais, Vt. (1788).

25. PETER WEST , ( Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 21 July 1718 res. T., husbandman m. Mrs. ELIZABETH (Athearn) (23) CHASE 16 Dec. 1740 (wid. of Thomas (35) ), who was b. 13 Apr. 1715 and d. 2 Sept. 1789. He rendered distinguished services in the Crown Point Expedition 1756 as Captain of a company in Col. Thatcher's Regiment and later in the regiment of Col. Zaccheus Mayhew. In the campaign of the following year he was garrisoned at Fort Edward, N. Y. taking part in the hostilities and d. there of smallpox 30 Oct. 1757. His will 2 Apr. 1756 was pro. 6 Jan. 1758. [See Survey notes.] They had the following named children:

130. ABIGAIL, b. 19 Jan. 1741 m. THOMAS BUTLER (633) 23 Feb. 1769.
131. GEORGE, b. 17 Mch. 1743-4.
132. PETER, b. 6 Aug. 1746.
133. THOMAS, b. 12 Jan. 1748.
134. ELIZABETH b. 20 Sept. 1751 m. JESSE LUCE (470) 23 Feb. 1769.
135. JERUEL, b. 12 Oct. 1753.
136. LOVE, b. 5 Oct. 1756 m. (1) NATHANIEL SKIFF (111) 22 Dec. 1774 (2) ZEPHANIAH CHASE (201) 16 Jan. 1785.

28. STEPHEN WEST , ( Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francisl ), b. abt. 1724 res. T., farmer rem. to Rochester, Mass. (1752) and later to Cornwallis, Nova Scotia (1760), where he d. 8 Jan. 1771. He served in the French and Indian War 1759 as ensign and lieutenant and prob. his title of "captain" came from later military service. He m. MARGERY ______ 1746, of whose family nothing has been learned. [See Survey notes.] It is prob. that they had more children than the following named:

140. ELIJAH,5 ( 1747 ) m. ESTHER LOOMER 1l Dec. 1771.
141. ABNER, ( 1750 ) m. ANNE FARRELL.
142. MARY b. Feb. 1764.
143. JANE, b. 25 Dec. 1766.
144. STEPHEN, b. 1769 m. _____ GODFREY 1 Sept. 1794.

30. WILLIAM WEST , ( Thomas,3-2 Francisl ), b. 4 Apr. 1714 res. T., glazier rem. to Rochester, Mass. (1752) and later to Cornwallis, N. S. where he d. 1799 and his will 12 Sept. 1798 was pro. 28 Nov. 1799 (Kings Co., Prob. Nova Scotia). He m. JANE WEST (24) 23 Dec. 1734. They had the following named children:

150. NATHAN,5 b. 17 Nov. 1735 d. y. [He is buried in Crossways Cemetery.]
151. JABEZ, b. ( 1737 ) m. RUTH TUPPER 30 Nov. 1763. Capt. of privateer in 1778-9 res. Machias, Me.
152. CYRUS, b. ( 1740 ) m. MARY FREEMAN 3 Dec. 1767 res. Rochester, Mass.
153. SETH b. ( 1744 ) m. MARY CROSSMAN 13 Dec. 1781.
154. PAUL, b. ( 1746 ).
155. FRANCIS ROYAL, b. ( 1748 ). [See http://www.nitehawk.com/kinsmans/Kinsman/D0001/I3159.html for more information about Francis Trayal West.]
156. THOMAS, b. ( 1760 ).
157. DEBORAH, b. ( 1762 ) m. (1) STEPHEN STRONG (2) _____ BENJAMIN.
158. ELIZABETH, b. 9 Feb. 1754 m. CHARLES TUPPER 24 Oct. 1771, from whom Sir Charles Tupper, Premier of Canada, descended.
159. WILLIAM, b. 17 Feb. 1756.

83. JOHN WEST , ( Thomas,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francisl ), b. 10 Apr. 1735 res. T. and later E. (1762), where he was living in 1770 and was deceased in 1788, at the date of his father's will. He m. WAITSTILL MERCY CHASE (59) 3 July 1758, and the following named children are credited to him on the authority of a private record:

174. DAVID,6 b. 22 June 1759.
175. DRUSILLA, b. 23 Mch. 1762 m. ELISHA LUCE 18 Apr. 1799.
176. PRISCILLA, b. 1l May 1764.
177. LEMUEL, b. 18 July 1766.
178. JOHN, b. 6 Feb. 1767.
179. KETURAH, b. 30 Oct. 1770 m. ELISHA BASSETT 14 July 1793.

131. GEORGE WEST , ( Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 17 Mch. 1743-4 res. T., rem. to Union, Me. after 1790, where he d. 4 Sept. 1800 m. (1) MARGARET DUNHAM (221) 21 Mch. 1765, who was b. Mch. 1748 and d. 18 Sept. 1766 (2) MARY CHASE (134) 17 Dec. 1767, who was b. 11 June 1748 and d. 17 May 1802. They had the following named children:

240. (Child), 6 b. Sept. 1766 d. y.
By Second Wife:
241. PETER, b. 25 Aug. 1768.
242. PEGGY, b. 1770 m. LOT LUCE (650) 8 Jan. 1787.
243. MARY, b. 1l Dec. 1772 m. JOHN TOBEY 13 June 1791. [She died in 1857.]
244. LOVE, bapt. 14 May 1775.
245. GEORGE WASHINGTON, bapt. 27 Nov. 1777 m. HANNAH FAIRBANKS 21 Oct. 1798 res. Granville, Ohio.
246. THOMAS, b. 26 Apr. 1780 m. SARAH SPALDING (60) 24 Mch. 1805. [He died in 1863.]

132. PETER WEST , ( Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 6 Aug. 1746 res. T., rem. perh. to Conway, Mass. (1777), but prob. returned soon, and later rem. to Industry, Me. (1791) and d. 25 Feb. 1828. He served as corporal in the Sea Coast Defence 1776, and was on the Committee of Safety for T. 1775 and received a pension. He m. HANNAH COTTLE (101) 21 Dec. 1769, who was b. 14 Dec. 1747 and d. 28 Dec. 1826, and they left the following issue:

250. SUSANNAH,6 b. 22 May 1770 m. JERUEL BUTLER (667) 25 Aug. 1791.
251. SHUBAEL, b. 14 Aug. 1772.
252. WILLIAM, b. 27 Aug. 1774 m. MERCY LARKIN GRAY of Wiscasset, Me.
253. ELIZABETH, bapt. 3 Nov. 1776 m. ABRAHAM H. WILLIS.
254. ABIGAIL, bapt. 17 Oct. 1779 m. BENJAMIN MANTER (140) 8 Sept. 1798.
255. HANNAH, bapt. 6 May 1781.
256. PETER, b. 28 Jan. 1782 m. ANNA BUTLER (672).
257. JOHN, b. ( 1784 ).
258. MARY, b. ( 1786 ) m. HENRY MANTER (142) 28 Nov. 1805.

133. THOMAS WEST , ( Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francisl ), b. 12 Jan. 1748 res. T., master mariner m. SARAH BUTLER (296) 21 Dec. 1775, who was b. 14 Dec. 1755 and d. 31 Jan. 1816. He d. 4 Jan. 1822. [He is buried at Crossways Cemetery.] [See The Descendants of Thomas and Sarah (Butler) West of Martha's Vineyard for more information about this family. Also contact [email protected] to share information on this family.]
They had the following named children:

260. GEORGE,6 b. 16 Nov. 1776.
261. LYDIA, b. ( 1778 ) m. RICHARD FISHER (70) 9 NOV. 1799.
262. SARAH, b. 1780 m. WARREN LUCE (885) 19 Oct. 1797.
263. REBECCA, b. 25 Dec. 1782 m. JOSHUA SKIFF (147) 26 NOV. 1812.
264. WILLIAM, b. (1784) m. BETSEY WEST (342) 21 Nov. 1820.
265. THOMAS, b. 3 May 1786 d. Nov. 1816, at sea.
266. LOVE, b. 7 June 1789 d. y.
267. LOVE, b. ( 1791 ).

135. JERUEL WEST , ( Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francisl ), b. 12 Oct. 1753 res. T., master mariner m. DEBORAH SHAW (10) 25 May 1775, who was b. 1755 and d. 11 Aug. 1837. He served as corporal in Sea Coast Defence 1776 and d. 29 June 1810. His will 7 Apr. 1810 was pro. 21 Aug. 1810. [He is buried at Crossways Cemetery.] [Contact [email protected] for more information on this family.]
They had the following named issue:

241. PETER WEST , ( George,5 Peter,4 Thomas,3 Abner,2 Francisl ), b. 25 Aug. 1768 res. T., master mariner m. SARAH DAGGETT (215) 4 May 1788, who was b. 6 Aug. 1769 and d. 8 Jan. 1838. He d. 13 May 1829 and his will 13 May 1829 was pro. 20 July 1829. They had the following named children:

303. SARAH,7 b. 2 Apr. 1790 m. EBENEZER B. BRUSH 8 May 1808.
304. CHARLES, b. 1 Mch. 1796 m. SOPHIA LUCE 5 Mch. 1821. [He died 7 Aug. 1868.]
305. NATHANIEL TOBEY, b. 12 May 1797 d. 13 Mch. 1822.
306. ABIGAIL, b. 7 Sept. 1798 m. JOHN HOLMES (52) 18 Mch. 1819.
307. MARY CHASE, b. 4 July 1800 m. DAVID CAREY 8 Dec. 1822.
308. PETER, b. 7 July 1803 m. Mrs. ALMIRA (Butler) (513) MAYHEW 1845.
309. JANE, b. 4 June 1812 m. EDWARD HARDING 5 May 1831. [She d. 13 Apr. 1852 in Tisbury.]

251. SHUBAEL WEST , ( Peter,5-4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 14 Aug. 1772 res. T., rem. to Hallowell, Me. and descendants are to be found in that state. He m. MARY EDMONSON 20 Jan. 1793, who was b. 16 Apr. 1776. They had the following named children:

310. DELIA EDMONSON,7 b. 2 Sept. 1794.
311. CHARLES EDMONSON, b. 14 Sept. 1796.
312. HANNAH, b. 5 Feb. 1799 d. y.
313. PETER, b. 6 Mch. 1800.
314. GEORGE, b. 26 June 1802.
315. JOSEPH, b. 17 July 1804 d. y.
316. JOSEPH MERRY., b. 14 Oct. 1805.
317. JOHN, b. 20 June 1809.
318. GUSTAVUS OSCAR, b. 27 Nov. 1811.
319. HANNIBAL ALPHONSE, b. 26 Dee. 1813.
320. HARRIET EMMELINE, b. 29 Mch. 1816 d. 1837.

260. GEORGE WEST , ( Thomas,5 Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 16 Nov. 1776 res. C., farmer m. PRUDENCE LAMBERT (121) 27 Oct. 1796, who was b. 16 Dec. 1777 and d. 24 July 1869. He d. 8 Oct. 1856. [See The Descendants of Thomas and Sarah (Butler) West of Martha's Vineyard for more information about this family. Contact [email protected] to share information on this family.]
They had the following named children:

330. LEONARD,7 b. 21 Nov. 1797 m. REBECCA FLANDERS (56) 5 May 1826.
331. MARY, b. 13 May 1800 m. JOHN TILTON (252).
332. SOPHRONIA b. 13 Apr. 1804 m. FRANCIS COTTLE (192).
333. LYDIA, b. 27 Nov. 1806 m. THOMAS H. LAMBERT (201) 22 Jan. 1825.
334. PRUDENCE, b. 6 Apr. 1809 m. WILLIAM MITCHELL.
335. THOMAS, b. 7 Dec. 1811 m. HANNAH LAMBERT.
336. MOSES L., b. 16 May 1814 m. REBECCA W. WEST.
337. GEORGE, b. 27 Jan. 1817 m. DIDAMIA TILTON 31 July 1842.
338. WILLIAM C., b. 13 Nov. 1819 m. ABBIE A. LUCE (1163).

271. JAMES SHAW WEST , ( Jeruel,5 Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 11 Dec. 1778 res. T., mariner m. CHARLOTTE HAMMOND of Falmouth 1 June 1797, who was b. 20 Apr. 1781 and d. 19 Jan. 1849. He d. 5 Sept. 1859. [See also the draft of The Descendants of Capt. James Shaw West for more information about James and Charlotte and their children. Contact [email protected] to share information on this family.]
They had the following named children:

340. JAMES SHAW,7 b. 19 Mch. 1798 m. ELEANORA DAGGETT (381) 5 May 1832.
341. JOHN, b. 31 Dec. 1799 d. y.
342. BETSEY, b. 25 Oct. 1801 m. (1) WILLIAM WEST (264) 21 NOV. 1820 (2) THOMAS N. HILLMAN (608) 25 Nov. 1834. [See The Descendants of Betsey (West) Hillman for more information about this family.]
343. JOHN, b. 22 Jan. 1804 m. Mrs. ELIZA (Butler) WILLIS 31 Dec. 1843. [She is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]
344. DRUSILLA, b. 12 Jan. 1806 m. CHARLES G. SMITH (671) 31 Jan. 1829.
345. LEANDER, b. 25 Feb. 1809 m. LOVE C. ROBINSON 12 Nov. 1837.
346. ABNER, b. 29 Apr. 1811 m. SARAH HODGE.
348. CHARLOTTE E., b. 15 Apr. 1817 m. THOMAS FOSTER 15 July 1833.
349. LENORA, b. 4 May 1822 d. y.
350. GUSTAVUS L., b. 22 Jan. 1826 m. DEBORAH R. ALLEN 24 Feb. 1848.

335. THOMAS WEST , ( George,6 Thomas,5 Peter,4 Abner,3 Thomas,2 Francis1 ), b. 7 Dec. 1811, m. HANNAH LAMBERT who was b. Feb. 1816.[See The Descendants of Thomas and Sarah (Butler) West of Martha's Vineyard for more information about this family. Contact [email protected] to share information on this family.]
Their children were:

LAURA, b. 1839, m. WILLIAM F. DUGEN.
THOMAS A., b. 1843, unm., killed in action in Civil War.
EDGAR M., b. 1855, m. AGNES MURDOCK.

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Return to Dukes County Genealogy.

Enoch West - History




RICHARD&rsquoS SAWMILL (at Atco) see MARPLE&rsquoS MILL




ROBERT&rsquoS GRIST AND SAWMILLS (Leconey&rsquos Gristmill)
Enoch Roberts married Ann Matlack 3 March 1809, and died 5 November 1843, while Ann survived until 3 March 1878. Enoch died intestate and a division of his lands among his several surviving children, by court-appointed commissioners, dated 16 April 1844, (Camden County Surrogate, Divisions and Dower Book, p. 10), shows that Enoch&rsquos sizable homestead plantation was split by the South Branch of Pennsauken Creek as well as by Church Road. Clement provides an additional drawing of the division in Maps and Drafts, Vol. 4, pp. 3-4.

Enoch owned a sawmill and a gristmill, located about 300 yards apart, both on the Camden County side of the creek. Today, Route 38 traverses and obliterates the site of the grist mill. The mill site was visible from Route 38 until the office park complex was competed., and the sawmill would have been just east of where Columbia Boulevard crosses the creek after having crossed Route 38.

The sawmill was run by the power provided by a pond on the creek, created by a dam at that point. In the 1844 division, the sawmill and an adjacent 71 acres on the south side of the creek, were assigned by the 1844 division to son Enoch Jr. [who survived until 1891], and was listed in Kirkbride&rsquos 1850 New Jersey Business Directory as &ldquonear Spread Eagle,&rdquo [in Waterfordville, east of Merchantville]. The 1877 Hopkins&rsquos Atlas, &ldquoMap of Delaware Township&rdquo shows him owning the property [and presumably the sawmill]. Old Mills (p. 22) states that this sawmill was built by Samuel Roberts in the early part of the nineteenth century, was probably Enoch&rsquos father of that name, to whom he was born 26 August 1787. Waterford Township ratables show a sawmill assessed to Samuel Roberts for 1785, 1786, 1789-1797, and 1802.

The gristmill, still owned by Enoch when he died in 1843 (15000 C), was assigned to son Reuben (1811-1855) (T. Chalkley Matlack, Matlack Family, Vol. 1, p. 118) along with 55 acres of land. The mill, although located at the creek, was powered by a pond created by damming Willis Run at Church Road, from where a race extended down to the mill and creek. Prowell (p. 717) is probably the source of statement in Old Mills that the grist mill was built by Reuben Roberts in 1838. The dam and millpond are still thereThe pond is still there the millrace provides small attractive ponds in a business office complex. The water system is known as Columbia Lakes., now a Cherry Hill Township park.

On 15 March 1848 Reuben sold the mill, the race and the millpond to Richard Leconey (Camden, J-357), and the mill was thereafter known as Leconey&rsquos Gristmill. Later, on 21 June 1864 (Camden, 28-73) Leconey acquired 57 acres adjoining on the south side of Church Road from Joseph H. Coles, being part of the inheritance of Enoch Roberts and part of a tract Reuben sold to Enoch (Camden, E-600), from whom Coles bought on 22 March 1862 (Camden, 28-7). Leconey&rsquos Gristmill is pictured on the frontispiece of Old Mills.

Enoch the father had a private road running north from Church Road and east of the mill race which, after a jog to the east, continued north over the creek. Columbia Boulevard is the approximate crossing point. The lower part of the road is gone, but Coles Road, from the creek to Maple Shade, preserves the north end. On application of Leconey and others the lower part became a public road in 1870, meeting an already public road on the Burlington County side (Cam RR 176).

Richard Leconey died intestate in 1889 (2707 D), and title to his two tracts passed to three brothers and a sister as his only heirs. The sister, Martha Ann Vance, and brother William Leconey signed off to the other two brothers, James M. and Chalkley Leconey, 18 March 1892 (Camden, 175-475). A lurid murder story involving Chalkley Leconey and the mill is included in CCHS Auto Tours III, mileage 2.7. The Roberts genealogy in this account is partly based on T. Chalkley Matlack Collection, Vol. l.

ROBERT&rsquoS GRIST AND SAWMILL&rsquoS (at Colestown on Crooked Lane in Cherry Hill) see COLE&rsquoS GRIST, SAW and FULLING MILLS

ROBERT&rsquoS SAW, FULLING & GRISTMILLS (at Colestown on Church Road)
&ldquoAbout a mile south of Colestown. stood a sawmill and fulling mill. They were owned and operated by Joseph Roberts during his life, but after his decease they were not much used, and but little remains to mark the place where they once stood.&rdquo (Woodwards and Hageman&rsquos 1883 History of Burlington County, p. 248). This was where Church Road crosses Pennsauken Creek. A sawmill [presumably the same one] can be dated back into the eighteenth century, with Samuel Roberts assessed for it, at least for 1785-1786, 1789-1797, and 1802 (Waterford township ratables). It was listed in Kirkbride&rsquos 1850 New Jersey Business Directory.

Clement provides a survey of 30 acres on the south side of Church Road (Glo RR B-116 [1812]) on both sides of the South Branch of Pennsauken Creek (Maps and Drafts, Vol. 4, p, 9). The real estate of Joseph Roberts, deceased (probably the son of the first millowner) had been sold by court order to obviate the necessity of an impracticable division among his heirs. The Master in Chancery, Richard W. Howell, advertised the sale in West Jerseyman, 31 October 1855, including &ldquothe small farm. called the &lsquoFulling Mill Property&rsquo upon which are erected a saw mill and fulling mill. the mills are in good order and in operation the water power is ample. &rdquo He sold and deeded the 30-acre tract to Joshua Roberts, a son of the decedent, 24 March 1856 (Mt. Holly, H6-208). Clement shows the millpond, with the sawmill at its foot, on the Burlington County side. He also shows on the south side of the road, in that county, an &ldquoold mill,&rdquo which must have been the fulling mill. Sidney&rsquos [1850] Map of the Township of Delaware (CCHS, M.83.90.427) shows the sawmill, a &ldquofactory&rdquo where the fulling mill was situated, and Joseph Roberts&rsquo residence near the latter. The 1851 Map of the Vicinity of Philadelphia (CCHS, M.2001.74) shows only a gristmill off Church Road.

The fulling mill was in existence as early as 1812 since the map annexed to Burl Co RR B-320 [extending Church Road from Colestown Church into Burlington County] shows a fulling mill at the creek.

The only references this writer has found to this Henry Roe sawmill are freeholder assessments for 1738, 1739 and 1750 [the year he died] (Gloucester County Freeholders Minutes 1701-1797). He left a will proved 13 March 1750 (468 H). Henry (b. 1705 [Cheesman Family, p. 50]) acquired property along both sides of the South Branch of Timber Creek in the vicinity of the Cheesman-Prosser mills. When Robert Engle advertised for sale 1,400 acres &ldquoat the head of Timber Creek,&rdquo he stated it was near Henry Roe&rsquos house (NJA, XII, p. 238).


The Rowand brothers, Hillman and John, had separate charcoal pulverizing enterprises in the latter part of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth, Hillman&rsquos being at Overbrook, on Gravelly Run, and John&rsquos near Clementon, on Thornes Mill Branch, which product they sold to the makers of whiskey (History of Lindenwold, pp. 44, 78 Clementon: A Historical Outline, p. 18).

John&rsquos initial purchase of land seems to have been from Thomas Loring, 5 May 1881 (Camden, 101-95), of the 15.32 acre &ldquoBozorth&rsquos Mill Tract&rdquo on Thorns Mill Branch [the lower stream] (see BOZORTH&rsquoS TURNING MILL). He also bought two adjoining tracts to the east, along the old road to Longacoming (Berlin), in 1889 (Camden, 147-280) and in 1895 (Camden, 225-323).

The long straight stretch of the road to Longacoming through East Clementon, laid out in 1813 by Glo RR B-146, eliminated a number of bends in the old road, but rejoined the latter not far east of Higgins Avenue. The first two courses of the old road going east from the junction are shown by dotted lines on the Clementon tax map (Plate 10, revised to 1974). Further east the old road has been replaced by First Avenue. Apparently those two courses served for years as access to the coal works, and in the 1889 deed that part of the old road was called Coal Mill Road.

This area was an ancient site for coaling operations since, in a 1776 mortgage by John Thorn on his sawmill tract (see THORN&rsquoS SAWMILL), mention is made of a coal kiln (Gloucester County Loan Commissioners Mortgage Book, 25 March 1776, p. 73 [GCHS]).

The process of producing pulverized charcoal required crushing, which Hillman provided by steam power (Prowell, p. 680) and John by water power (History of Lindenwold, p. 78). A small millpond, used by John, came to be known as Rowand Lake. It was the subject of a story on restoring the dam and pond, both of which had been down for 18 years (Philadelphia Inquirer, 20 September 1998, BR 12). An article on charcoal production, and a photograph of John&rsquos mill, were published in Camden County History Journal, Vol. 1, Nos. 2 and 3.

The founding of the Enoch Rauh Club, in four takes

In a 1998 oral history with the National Council of Jewish Women, the critic Barry Paris told a second-hand story about the founding of the Enoch Rauh Club — how it got its name and how it secured start-up funds for its youth basketball team. He had heard the story from his father, Wyoming Paris, who had been a leader in the club for decades.

“He, as he tells the story, if I have it right, took the streetcar out to Squirrel Hill to where [the Rauhs] lived — I think with a friend, he would tell you the name and the age and size and height — and knocked on the door and asked to see Mrs. Rauh, and she kindly allowed them to come in, and seated them in her beautiful parlor, and they told her the story and made the request, and she came through,” Paris recalled. “She said yes. And so I think that’s how — I know that’s how they got the uniforms and I think that’s how they got the name. They took the name Enoch Rauh Club in honor of their patron.”

A lot of what we know about the past arrives this way, as recollections of recollections. But this time, something unusual happens. The interviewer hands Paris a sheet of paper. It’s the same story, only this version had been written by Wyoming.

“Oh here’s the story!” the younger Paris says. “Let’s see how close I was.”

Paris now reads his father’s version, adding commentary: “‘I was one of four boys from the Hill District who originated the club. I suggested Enoch Rauh for the club name because of his respectful life and being the first Jewish councilman in Pittsburgh, copying the use of well-known names for clubs… Long story about Enoch Rauh Club history and Mrs. Rauh inviting us boys to her home in Squirrel Hill to listen to our idea of a club honoring the well-known, respected Enoch Rauh. Another long story, but a quick answer — Oh, for him, this is succinct — for the most important assumption: Mrs. Rauh gave us a note paying for jerseys and shorts. Nothing else ever. We financed ourselves by getting small fees for playing in many Pittsburgh areas, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and the money from our own individual few dollars we made working various jobs.’”

The account continues, reaching an important conclusion. “Underlined are the original four boys invited to Mrs. Enoch Rauh’s home in Squirrel Hill to discuss using the Rauh name for the club,” Paris reads, and then he tells the interviewer, “And before that, underlined, are Shep Gefsky, Alex Singer, Maishe Wheeler and Wyoming Paris.”

The moment highlights how retelling a story often means refining it. In one version, two brave boys ride to Squirrel Hill to cold call a leading Jewish citizen. In the other, she invites four boys to her home. In one, the boys name their club in honor of their patron. In the other, patronage seems to be given in gratitude for the honorific.

The Enoch Rauh Club was among the best known and longest lasting of the hundreds of Jewish youth clubs founded in Pittsburgh before World War II. By the 1940s, it was running a youth basketball league and a popular charity for local orphans.

Success often prompts a turn toward history, as does longevity, which is a form of success. In recollections from 1932, longtime Enoch Rauh Club advisor L. Daniel Schmidt recalled how he got involved with the group. It was the spring of 1920, and he was a recent high school graduate living in the Hill District. One of the kids on his street, a boy named Shep Gefsky, asked him to become the adult supervisor of a new club.

“I met the boys. They had organized in January of that year. Enoch Rauh of City Council, one of Pittsburgh’s leading citizens at the time, had passed away in November of the previous calendar. With the courage born of immaturity, they had written Mrs. Enoch Rauh requesting permission to name their club after her illustrious husband. Mrs. Rauh had graciously consented and forever after endeared herself to every boy in that club.” No streetcar here, nor a knock on the door. No jerseys, no shorts, no Wy Paris.

You may remember learning in school about “primary sources” and “secondary sources.” The distinction is proximity. A primary source is created by the people involved in an event and is ideally created as close to the time of the event as possible.

We have a primary source for our story. It’s the letter to Bertha Rauh, dated Jan. 25, 1920. Shep Gefsky wrote it in schoolhouse cursive across four sheets of stationery. It begins with an apology. The boys had already been using Enoch Rauh’s name for their club, without asking for permission. They were rectifying the oversight “to play safe.”

Gefsky explains that a dozen Jewish boys had recently formed the club. They had easily agreed on a purpose — literary and athletic pursuits — but they were hotly debating their name. “Benjamin Goodstein suddenly called out the name of your late husband Enoch Rauh and the name was adopted unanimously.” The next two and a half pages list the officers and committee members of the club. The list doesn’t include Wyoming Paris.

The first report of the Enoch Rauh Club appeared in the March 5, 1920, issue of the Jewish Criterion. A membership list published a few weeks later, in the March 26 issue, is the first mention of Wyoming Paris, who became a star of the basketball team.

The point isn’t to debunk anyone’s memories. It takes very little imagination to reintroduce Wyoming Paris into the story. Ambiguous wording, false memories and incomplete documents could reconcile many of the conflicting details in these accounts.

Set all the facts to the side and what remains are the stories — or more to the point, the storytellers. Barry Paris delights in his raconteur father. Wyoming Paris defends the industriousness of his friends. Dan Schmidt summons theatrical adjectives and adverbs to turn the story of some boys asking for permission into a tale of near-mythic adoration. PJC

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About the Author

MICHAEL HOWARD (1948–2015) was an English practitioner of Luciferian Witchcraft and a prolific author on folklore, paganism, and esoteric topics. From 1976 until his death he was the editor of The Cauldron magazine. The author of over 30 books including Pillars of Tubal Cain, The Book of Fallen Angels, Children of Cain, and Secret Societies: Their Influence and Power from Antiquity to the Present Day, Michael Howard was an exemplary practitioner and teacher of traditional craft.

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Experience the wild and wooly past of the Old Wild West, its history, folklore, cultural expression including legends of the cowboys and pioneer women of the frontier as well as the various historical events that took place in the American West.

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