Juan Manuel de Ayala was born in Osuna, Spain, on 28th December, 1745. He joined the Spanish navy on 19th September, 1760. Ayala, the captain of the San Carlos, was sent to New Spain, to take part in the exploration of the Californian coast.
Inspector General José de Gálvez was placed in charge of what became known as the "Sacred Expedition". It was decided that three ships, the San Carlos, the San Antonio, and the San José, should sail to San Diego Bay. It was also agreed to send two parties to make an overland journey from the Baja to Alta California.
The first ship, the San Carlos, sailed from La Paz on 10th January, 1769. The other two ships left on 15th February. The first overland party, led by Fernando Rivera Moncada, left from the Misión San Fernando Rey de España de Velicatá on 24th March. With him was Father Juan Crespi, who had been given the task of recording details of the trip. Also in the party were 25 soldiers, and 42 Baju Christian Indians. The second overland expedition, led by Gaspar de Portolà, included Junipero Serra, the man who had been put in charge of building missions in California.
Fernando Rivera Moncada and his party that included Juan Crespi reached San Diego on 14th May. He built a camp and waited for the others to arrive. The San Antonio, reached its destination in fifty-four days. The San Carlos took twice that time and the San José was lost with all aboard. The seaman on the ships suffered from scurvy and large numbers had died on the journey.
The overland party led by Gaspar de Portolà arrived on 28th June, 1769. Junipero Serra later recalled: "It was a day of great rejoicing and merriment for all, because although each one in his respective journey had undergone the same hardships, their meeting through their mutual alleviation from hardship now became the material for mutual accounts of their experiences. And although this sort of consolation appears to be the solace of the miserable, for us it was the source of happiness. Thus was our arrival in health and happiness and contentment at the famous and desired Port of San Diego."
Juan de Ayala spent the next few years using the San Carlos to bring supplies to the Spanish settlements in San Diego, Monterey and Carmel. He was also involved in providing the necessary help to the Franciscan missions at San Diego de Alcalá, San Gabriel Arcangel, San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and San Antonio de Padua.
Viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli decided to establish another Spanish settlement in San Francisco. An overland party, led by Juan Bautista de Anza left Tubac (present-day Tucson) with 240 soldiers and colonists, together with four civilian families, including women and children. They also took cattle and horses for breeding stock. The plan was that after crossing the deserts of Arizona and California, they would travel up the coast to San Francisco.
The viceroy also commissioned Juan de Ayala to explore the San Francisco area by sea. He took with him Vicente de Santa Maria, who was to be his diarist. The San Carlos left Monterey on 26th July, 1775. Rand Richards, the author of Historic San Francisco (1991) has pointed out that Ayala had a serious accident on the journey: "He was nursing what must have been a very painful wound, having accidently been shot in the foot several weeks into the voyage when a loaded pistol discharged as it was being packed away."
The San Carlos reached San Francisco Bay on 5th August. He therefore became the first European to sail through the Golden Gate. He anchored his vessel near present-day Fort Point. Ayala later reported: "From the shore's edge, some Indians begged us with the heartiest of shouts and gesticulations to come ashore. Accordingly I sent over to them in the longboat the reverend father chaplain (Vicente de Santa Maria), the first sailing master, and some men under arms, with positive orders not to offend the Indians but to please them, taking them a generous amount of earrings and glass beads. I charged our men to be discreetly on their guard, keeping the longboat ready to pull out if any quarrelling started, and I told the sailing master to leave four men in it under arms."
Vicente de Santa Mariarecorded in his journal: "Before the longboat had gone a quarter of a league it came across a rancheria of heathen who, seeing that our people were close by, left their huts and stood scattered at the shore's edge. They were not dumfounded (though naturally apprehensive at sight of people strange to them); rather, one of them, raising his voice, began with much gesticulation to make a long speech in his language, so outlandish that none of it could be understood. At the same time, they were making signs for the longboat to come near, giving assurance of peace by throwing their arrows to the ground and coming in front of them to show their innocence of treacherous dissimulation. But if danger showed not its face to the officer, he saw at least the shadow of risk to his men and did not wish to approach any nearer than was necessary for the discharge of his duty. The Indians, guessing that our men were somewhat suspicious, tried at once to make their intentions clear. They took a rod decorated with feathers and with it made signs to our men that they wished to make them a present of it; but since this met with no success they decided on a better plan, which was to draw back, all of them, and leave the gift stuck in the sand of the shore near its margin. The longboat turned back for the ship, leaving the gift untaken and reporting that the place was not as it had been thought."
The following day the longboat returned with their own gifts. Vicente de Santa Maria recorded in his journal: "Our captain, touched by this indication of regard, showed on receiving it with respect a just acknowledgement of its worth. Therefore it was decided that very early the next morning the longboat should return the basket in which the Indians had given us their pinole, and in it trinkets made with bits of glass, earrings, and glass beads, our captain having first directed the officer in charge of the longboat to replace the stake and return the basket to the same place as before, very quietly, and at once return to the ship. This was done as ordered, and although there were some heathen near by, our men pretended not to have taken notice of their presence. These Indians acted almost wonderstruck at so prompt and special a return of favours, marvelling at the sight of the things sent from the ship."
The longboat returned and this time it was the Native Americans (probably Costanoans) who ran away: "The armed Indians, on seeing our men close by, hid themselves (perhaps in fear) among what oak trees they could find that would give them cover... Having reached the shore, he came upon a collection of things which, though to our notion crude, was of high value to those unfortunates, for otherwise they would not have chosen it as the best offering of their friendly generosity. This was a basketful of pinole (who knows of what seed?), some bunches of strings of woven hair, some of flat strips of tule, rather like aprons, and a sort of hairnet for the head, made of their hair, in design and shape best described as like a horse's girth, though neater and decorated at intervals with very small white snailshells. All this was near a stake driven into the sand. Limited though it was, we did not hold this unexpected friendly gift of little value; nor would it have been seemly in us to be contemptuous of a present that showed the good will of those who humbly offered it."
Ayala spent most of the time in the bay anchored off Angel Island. He kept a detailed log of the party's activities and named two of its landmarks: Sausalito ("little thicket of willows") and Alcatraz ("island of pelicans"). Ayala was awaiting the arrival of Juan Bautista de Anza, but after 44 days in the bay he decided to return to Monterey.
Juan de Ayala reported back that he was impressed by San Francisco harbour: "This is certainly a fine harbour: it presents on sight a beautiful fitness, and it has no lack of good drinking water and plenty of firewood and ballast. Its climate, though cold, is altogether healthful and it is free from such troublesome daily fogs as there are at Monterey, since these scarcely come to its mouth and inside there are very clear days. To these many good things is added the best of all: the heathen all round this harbour are always so friendly and so docile that I had Indians aboard several times with great pleasure, and the crew as often visited them on land. In fact, from the first day to the last they were so constant in their behaviour that it behove me to make them presents of earrings, glass beads, and pilot bread, which last they learned to ask for in our language clearly."
Juan de Ayala, who retired on full-pay in 1785, died on 30th December, 1797.
There extended to the northeast of our ship a large cove that looked attractive and well adapted to our needs. At 9 o'clock I set out with the first sailing master to examine it, and, once there, began sounding and found fourteen to twelve fathoms depth. I intended to go to the end of it, but seeing that the tide was contrary I had to return aboard at 1 o'clock in the afternoon.
Just then, from the shore's edge, some Indians begged us with the heartiest of shouts and gesticulations to come ashore. Accordingly I sent over to them in the longboat the reverend father chaplain, the first sailing master, and some men under arms, with positive orders not to offend the Indians but to please them, taking them a generous amount of earrings and glass beads. I charged our men to be discreetly on their guard, keeping the longboat ready to pull out if any quarrelling started, and I told the sailing master to leave four men in it under arms.
From that day and our first contact with them the Indians certainly seemed friendly and wanting our men to visit their rancherias, urging them even to eat and sleep there, as they explained by signs; already they had set out at the shore a gift of pinole, bread made from their seed plants, and tamales of the same. The short time that our men were with them, it was noticed that the Indians repeated very readily all our Spanish words. I proposed to them by signs (with orders to the sailors to bring them accordingly) that they should come aboard; but by their own signs they made it clear that until our men were at their rancherias they could not come, and after our men had been with them for a while the longboat returned to the ship and the Indians disappeared.
I have carried out the orders under which I embarked in the supply ship San Carlos and have come in from my return voyage at this harbour of San Blas this 6th day of November after having been at the harbours of Monterey and San Francisco...
After a hundred and one days of sailing I reached the harbour of Monterey, where I was obliged to stay unloading cargo and having some maintenance work done on the ship until the 27th of July. I then hoisted sail to seek out the harbour of San Francisco, which I reached on the night of the 5th of August. I stayed there forty-four days, carrying out sometimes myself, sometimes in the person of the sailing master mentioned, as faithfully as possible, the exploration of as much as could be brought under the methodical and attentive inspection the enterprise required.
This is certainly a fine harbour: it presents on sight a beautiful fitness, and it has no lack of good drinking water and plenty of firewood and ballast. In fact, from the first day to the last they were so constant in their behaviour that it behove me to make them presents of earrings, glass beads, and pilot bread, which last they learned to ask for in our language clearly.
Alcatraz Prison History and Facts
Since its creation in 19th century, to its peak in the middle of 20th century when some of the greatest prisoners of USA were held there, the famed prison Alcatraz slowly built his reputation that made him the world's best known prison. Often called as "The Rock", this famous prison was built on the small rocky island in the Bay of San Francisco. Its remote location was first used as a place for bay's first lighthouse, but over years American military took control of the island and slowly transformed it into a prison.
Island Alcatraz was discovered by famous Spanish naval officer Juan Manuel de Ayala in 1775, who was the first European who entered San Francisco Bay. He named the island as "La Isla de los Alcatraces" (which translates as "the island of the pelicans"). By the middle of 19th century, Mexican governor Pio Pico commissioned the construction of lighthouse on that island. Shortly after the end of Mexican-American war and the acquisition of California in 1850, by the order of 13th president of the United States Millard Fillmor Alcatraz became the property of US military. In the following ten years army started building fortifications and defensive cannons to the island, which were never fired during the length of American Civil War. It was during that time that island received its first prisoners. Remote location and fortified military complex proved to be great spot for a prison, and after military decided to move their forces off the island, only prison remained. Population of the prison slowly rose through the decades, and biggest addition to its size happened after Spanish-American war in 1898 and 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
In 1907, Alcatraz officially became designated as Western U.S. Military Prison, and construction work on its expansion began. By 1912 the main prison block and surrounding buildings were complete, and slowly prison started increasing its population. The majority of prisoners that were sent there caused problems at other prisons, and maximum security provided by the facilities and islands natural defenses proved to be instrumental for its fame. During the age of 1930s prohibition, many famous gangsters and criminals were housed there, most notably Al Capone and Machine Gun Kelly. During its entire history, no prisoner managed to successfully escape Alcatraz. In total of 14 escape attempts, 36 prisoners tried to escape, 23 were caught, 8 died on the run, and five remaining are considered missing and drowned.
Because of its increasing cost and remote location, Alcatraz prison was officially closed on March 21, 1963, only two years after the most famous prison escape attempt of all time. After the complicated and daring plan, inmates Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin managed to exit the prison complex walls and enter the icy waters of San Francisco Bay. Their bodies were never found and although the officials claim that they most certainly drowned, U.S. MarshallOffice still investigates this case.
In the years after the prison closed, Alcatraz Island became a home of large group of Indian protestors who fought against the US government about rights of Indian people. In 1986 Alcatraz Island was declared a National Historic Landmark, and tourist comes from around the world to explore this interesting historic site. The fame of this island continues to rise even today, with never-ending tributes that are made in countless pieces of written and film media. Many books and movies tried to describe conditions inside its prison during its peak, and the legends about Alcatraz prison entered into pop culture as one of the best known prisons of the world.
Juan de Ayala
Juan Manuel de Ayala (Osuna, 28 dicembre 1745 – 30 dicembre 1797) è stato un esploratore e navigatore spagnolo che giocò un ruolo importante nell'esplorazione europea della California, dato che assieme al suo equipaggio della San Carlos fu il primo ad entrare nella baia di San Francisco.
Ayala era originario di Osuna, in Andalusia. Si arruolò nella marina spagnola il 19 settembre 1760 raggiungendo il grado di capitano nel 1782. Si ritirò il 14 marzo 1785.
All'inizio della decade del 1770 le autorità spagnole ordinarono un'esplorazione della costa settentrionale della California, "per accertare se ci sia qualche insediamento russo sulle coste californiane, e per esaminare il porto di San Francisco". Don Fernando Rivera y Moncada aveva già segnato il punto per una missione sull'attuale San Francisco, ed una spedizione via terra, fatta da Juan Bautista de Anza per reclamare il possesso spagnolo di quel territorio, era partita verso nord. Ayala, allora tenente, era una delle persone assegnate a quella spedizione navale. Giunse a Veracruz nell'agosto del 1774, proseguendo per Città del Messico al fine di ricevere ordini dal viceré Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa. Bucareli lo mandò a San Blas dove assunse il comando dello schooner Sonora, parte di uno squadrone guidato da Bruno de Heceta sulla fregata Santiago. Lo squadrone salpò da San Blas all'inizio del 1775. Quando si trovarono al largo di San Blas il comandante della nave San Carlos, Don Miguel Manrique, si ammalò. Secondo alcune fonti impazzì. Ad Ayala fu ordinato di prendere il comando del vascello, per tornare a San Blas a depositare il malato e poi riunirsi allo squadrone dopo pochi giorni di navigazione. Ayala avrebbe dovuto attraversare lo stretto ed esplorare la terra all'interno, mentre la Santiago e la Sonora avrebbero proseguito a nord. La San Carlos si rifornì a Monterey, partendo il 26 luglio per procedere verso nord. Ayala attraversò il Golden Gate il 5 agosto 1775,  con alcuni problemi dovuti alla marea. Tentò numerosi ancoraggi, fermandosi al largo dell'isola di Angel, senza però riuscire a contattare il gruppo di Anza. La San Carlos rimase nella baia fino al 18 settembre, tornando poi a San Blas passando da Monterey. Il resoconto che Ayala fece al viceré descriveva con precisione la geografia della baia, e ne sottolineava i vantaggi come porto (soprattutto per la mancanza di "questi problemi di nebbia che abbiamo ogni giorno a Monterey, dato che la nebbia riesce difficilmente a raggiungere l'entrata del porto e, una volta dentro, il tempo è sereno") e la buona accoglienza dei nativi.
The island is alive with history… three thousand years ago it served as a fishing and hunting site for Coastal Miwok Indians. It was later a haven for Spanish Explorer Juan Manuel de Ayala, a cattle ranch, and a U.S. Army post starting with the Civil War.
From 1910 to 1940, the island processed hundreds of thousands of immigrants, the majority from China. During World War II, Japanese, and German POWs were held on the island, which was also used as a jumping-off point for American soldiers returning from the Pacific. In the s and s, the island was home to a Nike missile site.
In 1946 the Quarantine Station located in Hospital Cove was declared surplus, and all functions were moved to San Francisco. In 1954 a number of citizen’s groups managed to persuade the California State Park Commission to obtain 36.82 acres surrounding Hospital Cove (aka Ayala Cove) for a State Park.
In 1962 the Nike missile site on the south side of the island was deactivated, and the army left the island. In December of that year, the entire island was turned over to the State of California for park purposes – with the single exception of the Coast Guard station on Point Blunt, which continues in active operation to this day.
In August of 1775, Lt. Juan Manuel de Ayala, a Spanish Naval officer, sailed the ship the San Carlos into San Francisco Bay and anchored into what is now know as Ayala Cove. The first Europeans to sail into the San Francisco Bay, Ayala and his crew spent forty days making a chart of the area. Following a practice then common among Catholic explorers naming sites for the religious feast days nearest to the time of discovery, Father Vicente, the chaplain of the San Carlos, christened the little island Isla de Los Angeles.
The next recorded European visitors to the cove were in 1814 when a British 26-gun sloop-of-war, HMS Racoon, anchored in the cove to make repairs. HMS Racoon gave her name to Raccoon Strait (the reason Raccoon Strait was originally spelled with only one Â“cÂ”) and the cove, then known as Â“Racoon CoveÂ”.
The big change in the cove came in 1889, when the War Department transferred ten acres to the Treasury Department to be used by the Marine Hospital Service for a Quarantine Station. At the time, San FranciscoÂ’s facilities for handling cases of contagious diseases on incoming ships were very inadequate.Â Ships needed to be fumigated to kill the rats they carried, since they carried bubonic plague and the passengers, their clothing and baggage were all disinfected as well.Â Opened in 1891, any ship coming into San Francisco Bay that was known, or suspected, to have contagious diseases aboard was diverted to the Quarantine StationÂ located in Â“Hospital CoveÂ”.
As the years passed, the use of theÂ Quarantine Station diminished. Better quality medical examinations were made at ports of embarkation and improved medical practices made lengthy quarantine unnecessary. Being an island isolated from the mainland made the station inconvenient and expensive to maintain. It was abandoned when the U.S. Public Health Service moved its headquarters to San Francisco.
In 1946 the Station was declared surplus, and all functions were moved to San Francisco.Â In 1957, three years after the cove became aÂ State Park, Â all but four of the Quarantine Station’sÂ forty-odd buildings were razed. Those remaining include the former Bachelor OfficerÂ’s Quarters (now the Park Visitor Center) and several employee residences, which are used by State Park staff.Â The huge metal disinfecting cylinders were removed, and the Station grounds bulldozed.
In 1954 a number of citizenÂ’s groups managed to persuade the California State Park Commission to obtain 36.82 acres surrounding Hospital Cove for a State Park. The federal government had already declared the island surplus property, and in 1958 even more acreage was acquired by the State. In December 1963, the entire island was turned over to the State. On September 6th, 1969 Hospital Cove was renamed Â“Ayala CoveÂ” in honor of the Spanish lieutenant who charted it.
On August 11, 1774, Spanish explorers on the ship Santiago, commanded by Juan Perez, sail past the future state of Washington, sight the peak that will later be named Mount Olympus, and name it "Cerro Nevada de Santa Rosalia." Juan Perez's Spanish expedition represents the first European discovery and exploration of Nueva Galicia (the Pacific Northwest).
The Santiago continued north to Nootka Sound and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Juan Perez and his mostly Mexican crew made contact with the Haida, and mapped the area.
Map made on 1774 Juan Perez expedition, recently discovered and proving that this was the first expedition to map the Pacific Northwest, 1774
Courtesy National Archives
Herbert K. Beals (translator), Juan Perez on the Northwest Coast: Six Documents of His Expeditions in 1774 (Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1989) Santiago Saavedra, To the Totem Shore: The Spanish Presence on the Northwest Coast (Madrid, Spain: Ediciones El Viso, 1986.
In March 1775, the second Spanish expedition, commanded by Bruno de Hezeta (sometimes spelled Heceta), sailed north from Mexico to Nueva Galicia (the Pacific Northwest). This expedition set forth shortly after Juan Perez returned from his historic first European journey to explore and map Spain’s farthest frontier on the west coast of the American continent. The mission of the second Spanish expedition was to successfully take formal possession of the land and to further exert Spain’s claim to Nueva Galicia. Having learned from the difficulties of sailing only one vessel during the first voyage, this expedition was carried out with three Mexican-built ships. Naval officers recently transferred to San Blas, Mexico, from the best naval academies in Spain were expressly recruited for the purpose of helping complete this important expedition. This time, Juan Perez was second in command.
The Vessels and Their Commanders
Bruno de Hezeta was given command of 90 men on the Santiago for this second voyage. Joining Hezeta as the second officer on the Santiago was the proven, yet cautious, sea-worn veteran of the first Pacific Northwest expedition, Juan Perez.
Juan Manual de Ayala was initially appointed the commanding officer of the 37-foot schooner Sonora, officially named the Nuestra Sonora de Guadalupe. This much smaller and more nimble two-masted supply ship served as the escort for the Santiago. It was needed to conduct costal mapping and reconnaissance in places where Juan Perez had been unable to navigate during the previous mission. Most importantly, the Sonora was to be used on this expedition for getting close enough to the coast to allow a crew to take formal possession of territory. To adapt it for the churning waves, unforgiving winds, rocky shoals, and strong currents of the northern Pacific sea, it was thoroughly refitted and careened in San Blas prior to the expedition under the watchful eyes of its commanders, Juan de Ayala and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1743-1794). Despite the skillful modifications it was noted that the ship was still much too cramped to comfortably accommodate the 16 crewmen packed on board for the long and arduous sojourn.
Lieutenant Bodega y Quadra, the only non-Spanish commander on this trip, was originally given the lesser position of second officer on the Sonora despite the fact that he outranked the others. Bodega y Quadra had all the qualifications and training necessary to be considered for a senior officer position. However, as a non-native Spaniard born in Lima, Peru, he was subject to the class prejudice common to Spain and the colonial Americas during that time. As such, he was passed over for promotions usually afforded native Spanish officers of equal training and skills.
The packetboat San Carlos carried provisions for the fledgling mission outpost at Monterey. It was also instructed to investigate and map the Bay of San Francisco, which a previous Spanish naval expedition had discovered in 1769. The San Carlos was initially under the command of Miguel Manrique. Jose de Canizarez was the steersman.
Beef, Beans, and Lard
With the exception of the San Carlos, the ships were outfitted and provisioned for one year with the same assortment of goods and supplies that were taken for the Perez expedition the previous year, with the exception that livestock was not taken. The supplies included several tons of jerked beef, more than a ton of dried fish, hardtack (a hard biscuit made of flour and water), a half-ton of lard, quantities of beans, rice, wheat, lentils, onions, cheese, chili peppers, salt, vinegar, sugar, pork, cinnamon, cloves, saffron, pepper, chocolate, barrels of brandy, barrels of wine, and an assortment of fruits and vegetables.
In total, 160 officers and men would take part in this expedition aboard the three ships. Added to the inherent difficulties of the fierce winds and waves that were common to this extent of the Pacific Northwest was the crew’s lack of maritime readiness. The majority of the crew was made up of Mexican Indian ranch hands who, though capable and strong, were completely untrained and unseasoned in naval duties and ill suited and unprepared to be sequestered for months aboard a cramped damp ship in open seas.
The Mission, and a Change in Command
Again under the shroud of secrecy, the Spanish northbound flotilla set sail on its expedition on March 16, 1775. The orders for the Sonora and Santiago, the two ships going beyond Monterey to the Pacific Northwest, were similar to the instructions the Viceroy had given to Juan Perez in 1774. The commanders were instructed to reach Latitude 65° North, make landfall, search for evidence of Russian intrusion, and conduct the formal act of possession.
However, just three days out of harbor, the San Carlos fired its canons twice and hoisted its red signal flag atop its mast. This was an emergency distress signal to the other two ships. When its companion ships arrived in response to the distress signal, they found Lieutenant Manrique in a state of total psychological breakdown and unable to function as commander. After a brief meeting, Hezeta ordered that the ill pilot be returned to San Blas immediately. This unexpected turn of events resulted in a three-day delay in the mission and a fortuitous change in the command. Juan de Ayala was now given command of the San Carlos and Bodega y Quadra assumed command of the Sonora. Bodega's pilot was Francisco Maurelle.
Once they were again at sea the schooner Sonora, now piloted by Bodega y Quadra, proved to be even less able to sail in the difficult open waters than originally expected. The Santiago had to resort to towing its escort ship for a period of time in an attempt to make headway. Despite a difficult and meandering journey, the ships finally sighted land off the coast of California on June 9, 1775. They anchored in the bay for two days, traded with the Indians, and formally claimed what is now Trinidad Bay, California, before they again sailed off.
A Jagged Green Coastline
It was not until July 11, 1775, that land was again sighted. What caught their eyes was the jagged green coastline of what is now Washington state. After cautiously maneuvering through dangerous shoals for another two days at Latitude 48° North, the ships found a favorable bay to land. This anchoring spot has been now identified as Point Grenville, several miles from the mouth of the Quinault River (Cook, p. 72). Due to unfavorable conditions, the Santiago kept its distance from the rocky shores while the smaller Sonora maneuvered closer towards land. As the Sonora advanced closer to the shore, nine canoes greeted the ship and quickly encircled it.
We now know that the Indians they encountered there were the Quinault (Scott, p. 40). Hezeta described them in his journal as having “beautiful faces … some fare color and others dark” (Beals, 1985, p. 76). The Indians motioned the crew of the Sonora to land and go ashore. They then approached the ship, boarded, initiated trade, and became friendly with the Hispanic crew. By the time the Indians departed at sunset it had been determined by Bodega that the Indians were apparently friendly. However, later that same evening the Quinault returned bearing more gifts, obliged by the presents that commander Bodega had given them previously. Again Bodega offered them additional trade items, but after receiving the gifts the Quinault men began a chorus of ominous chants, giving Bodega cause for concern.
The Historic Spanish Landing
At the cusp of sunrise on the morning of the next day (July 12), a single canoe bearing nine Quinault approached Hezeta’s ship and initiated another friendly round of trading. When the Quinault departed, a select group of men from the Santiago (including the commander, Father Benito de la Sierra, Don Cristobal Revilla, the surgeon Don Juan Gonzales, and Juan Perez) boarded the ship’s launch to conduct the formal act of possession. They successfully reached the shore and became the first non-Indians to set foot on what is now Washington state and formally take possession of this land.
It could now be officially considered part of Mexico and part of the Kingdom of Spain. As part of the ceremony, Hezeta named the landing spot Rada de Bucareli in honor of the Viceroy of Spain at that time. As would be the unfortunate trend to erase much of the original European (that is, Spanish) nomenclature of this area, it has since been renamed Grenville Bay. Approximately one hour after taking possession, the small launch quickly returned to the safety of the larger ship. The act was a monumental and historic event, but later that day the joys of that accomplishment would be swept away by the repercussions of having undertaken it.
While the Santiago was completing this task, low tides exposed rocky shoals that now trapped Bodega’s ship. The resulting conditions made it impossible to maneuver out of this rocky trap until the tide waters returned. When the ship was finally able to sail out of the shoal with the rising waters, it went to deeper water just a short distance from where it had been trapped.
A Tragic Encounter
The Quinault men who had visited the previous night showed up again the next morning and boarded the ship. This time, in a bold act of confidence, they brought with them three women, presumably their wives. In this friendly atmosphere, the Quinault traded salmon and other types of dried fish for glass beads.
After the Indians left, Bodega formed a landing party of seven of the most able crewmen to search for fresh water, cut some replacement masts, and gather firewood. Although the men were armed, all those aboard were under strict orders by the Viceroy to “not offend the Indians and only make use of the weapons in self defense” (Cook, p. 72).
With whitecap waves almost swamping the small landing boat, the men struggled to reach the shore some 30 yards from the mother ship. When the struggling boat finally reached the shore, several hundred Quinault Indians who were waiting in ambush suddenly appeared en masse from the dense shoreline thicket and pounced upon the unprotected landing party. In the ensuing fierce but quick battle, the Quinault succeeded in massacring all seven of the Spanish crew and then hacked the small landing boat to pieces in search of scraps of metal.
Bodega watched through his spyglass in horror, unable to save his men from the unexpected and unprovoked attack. In the ensuing chaos, the landing party was not able to, or chose not to, fire a single shot at their assailants. In commemoration of the unfortunate events that took place on that day, Bodega named the Point that we know as Point Grenville, “Punta de los Martires” (Point of the Martyrs).
With the aid of the few remaining able crew, Bodega struggled to maneuver the ship toward deeper and safer waters. Armed and determined Quinault men in their canoes paddled menacingly in close pursuit. Several of the warriors in the lead canoe were able to clamber aboard the retreating ship. Bodega reacted by ordering a volley of shots. The unfortunate assault killed several of the Quinault Indians yet thwarted the complete annihilation of Bodega and the remaining half dozen ill and injured crewmen.
Exhausted and remorseful, Bodega rendezvoused with Francisco Mourelle and the Santiago who were over a mile away and unaware of the horrors that had befallen their companions. The two commanders reunited and held a brief meeting to discuss what had occurred and their options. Upon taking a vote, they agreed to continue on the mission without seeking retribution for the massacre. Six crewmen from the Santiago were quickly transferred to the Sonora and the two ships quickly sailed away from the now unfriendly shores.
On the dark cold night of July 29, 1775, the sister ships separated, as planned by the two commanders. The Santiago, with Bruno de Hezeta at the helm meandered north until August 11 to about the border between what is now Washington and Canada. It was at this point that the ever cautious, and now quite frail, Juan Perez encouraged the commander to return back to San Blas, Mexico, with its sick and scurvy ridden crew. The much smaller ship, with Bodega y Quadra commanding, remained on its original course, steadfast and determined to reach its instructed destination of 60 degrees North.
The Spanish Sighting of the Columbia
In its return trip to San Blas, the Santiago shadowed the coast line mapping its new prize for the many Spanish ships that would soon follow. In the afternoon of August 17, 1775, Hezeta sighted a large bay between two capes, penetrating so far inland that it reached the horizon (Cook, p. 78). He named the high cliff on the north side of the entrance San Roque after a saint of that given name. It is now know as Cape Disappointment. The south side of the entrance to the river he called Leafy Cape. He gave the river mouth the name, “Bay of the Assumption of Our Lady” (Bahia de la Asuncion de Nuestra Senora) in honor of the Virgin Mary and the corresponding religious holiday celebrated in her honor every year during that week. This waterway is now known as the Columbia River. Hezeta became the first non-native to discover this magnificent body of water.
Unfortunately, as fate would have it, the poor health of his crew prevented him from navigating it. We know today that his unquestionable, detailed description of the currents and his maps are evidence of his accomplishment of being the first non-native to discover and name this river. Hezeta’s documented discovery was later credited to the American mariner Robert Gray, who sailed up the river and named it the Columbia River 17 years after Hezeta’s discovery.
The Sonora's Journey North
Now sailing alone and short of fresh water and food, Bodega and the crew of the Sonora unanimously agreed continue braving the uncharted course before them and keep the original mission alive. They pushed on and reached as far as what is now close to Sitka, Alaska, reaching 59Ëš North Latitude on August 15, 1775. There Hezeta and his crew completed successful acts of sovereignty, naming and claiming Puerto de los Remedios and Puerto de Bucareli and the Mount Jacinto, now called Edgecumbe. They continued north until September 8, when they turned south and headed for San Blas due to the illness of the commander and his crew.
With only two able seamen aboard, the Sonora finally dropped anchor at Monterey Bay on October 7, 1775.. This was five weeks after Hezeta had arrived with the Santiago. Bodega and Mourelle had to be carried off their ship. Over the next weeks the two commanders and the Sonora’s crew were nurtured back to health by the missionaries and their fellow expedition members from the Santiago. On the first of November the two boats again lifted their tired sails and together headed south to San Blas, Mexico, to report their adventures and accomplishments to the Viceroy and Carlos III, King of Spain.
The Death of Juan Perez
On November 3, 1775, aching from scurvy and poor health acquired on two heroic expeditions, Juan Perez died and was buried at sea with a solemn Mass in his honor, a round of musket fire, and a final fitting cannonade. Sailing for honor and his country, Perez’ accomplishments deserve to be more than a footnote in the annals of Pacific Northwest Coast maritime history. He was a true hero, having led expeditions where no European had gone before and providing the inspiration for others to follow.
This second voyage, although costly in terms of the deaths of crewmen and the strained relationship with the Indians, was historically very significant. The commanders produced accurate charts and maps that would later serve as proof of Spain’s claim to the costal territory from what is now Monterey, California, to the Gulf of Alaska. They dispelled the myths of the presence of Russian traders and settlements, and took formal possession according to international law. Bodega y Quadra, Francisco Mourelle (his second pilot), and an inexperienced native Mexican crew survived numerous close calls on their small ship.
They endured the ravages of scurvy, hunger, burning thrust, and biting cold to become the first European-led expedition to take possession and officially claim the Pacific Northwest Coast and Alaska. The brave crew members who undertook this harrowing ordeal with Juan Perez, voyaging into the unknown, also deserve to be recognized for their exceptional bravery and skill. Despite the secrecy of this expedition, it served to open the door to the Pacific Northwest and proved the talent and tenacity of the Hispanic Mariners.
Map of Washington coast (present-day Grenville Point, Grays Harbor County), drawn by Bruno de Hezeta, July 1775
Courtesy Historical Atlas of the North Pacific Ocean by Derek Hayes
First map of the mouth of the Columbia River, discovered and drawn by Bruno de Hezeta and named Bahia de la Asuncion, August 17, 1775
Courtesy Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
Bas relief of Bodega y Quadra (1743-1794), 1960s
By Spanish Sculptor J. Avalos, Courtesy Museo Naval, Madrid
Detail of Bruno de Hezeta map of Indian tribes visited, 1775
Juan Manuel de Ayala, 1775
On August 5, 1775, Lt. Juan Manuel de Ayala captained his ship the San Carlos north from Monterey and through the Golden Gate. They anchored in a protected cove on an island and spent the next six weeks surveying, taking soundings and mapping the Bay, and drawing up the charts used by later ships. He named the island "Isla de Nuestra Señora de los Angeles" ("Island of Our Lady of the Angels"). The cove faces the green, grassy area toward the left side in the photo above.
The actual Captain's log, and the engaging journals of Father Vicente María and the other San Carlos crew members as they got to know the Bay and its residents (some openly hospitable, some less so), have been reproduced as photocopies, with same text in English on facing pages.
The place on Angel Island State Park where the San Carlos first anchored was later renamed Ayala Cove - in future years the site of the annual Ayala Day Festival. On one visit in 1966, we found my brother David Ayala and his San Francisco band "The Gentle Dance" playing there for the festival could anything have been more fitting? David now plays with the "VFO - Village Folk Orkestra" in Nevada City, California.
Juan Manuel de Ayala
Juan Manuel de Ayala (Osuna, 28 december 1745 - 30 december 1797) was een Spaanse marineofficier die een belangrijke rol speelde in de Europese ontdekking van Californië omdat hij en de état major van het schip San Carlos voor zover bekend de eerste Europeanen zijn geweest die de Baai van San Francisco binnenvoeren.
De Ayala begon zijn loopbaan bij de marine op 19 september 1760 en werd in 1782 benoemd tot kapitein hij verliet de zeedienst met pensioen (maar werd volledig doorbetaald vanwege zijn verdiensten in Californië) op 14 maart 1785. In de vroege jaren 1770 beval de Spaanse Koninklijke macht dat de noordelijke kust van Californië onderzocht moest worden. Dat was onder meer om te onderzoeken of er Russische nederzettingen aanwezig waren en om de haven van San Francisco te onderzoeken. Don Fernando Rivera y Moncada had toen al een punt aangewezen voor een nederzetting in wat tegenwoordig San Francisco is, en een overland-expeditie naar het noorden uitgerust onder Juan Bautista de Anza om de Spaanse macht te bevestigen in het gebied. De Ayala, in de rang van luitenant, was ingedeeld bij een zee-expeditie hij bereikte Santa Cruz in augustus 1774 en reisde verder naar Mexico om nadere bevelen te ontvangen van de onderkoning, Don Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa.
Bucareli zond hem naar San Blas waar hij het commando verkreeg over de schoener Sonora, dat deel uitmaakte van het eskader onder commando van Don Bruno de Heceta op het fregat Santiago. Dit eskader vertrok van San Blas in het jaar 1775. Toen men buiten San Blas geankerd lag en op het punt stond uit te zeilen werd de commandant van de mailboot San Carlos, Don Miguel Manrique, ziek - bronnen beweren dat hij krankzinnig werd. De Ayala kreeg het bevel het commando over deze boot over te nemen, waarmee hij terug naar San Blas zeilde om de ongelukkige Manrique aan land te zetten, en vervolgens na een paar dagen zeilen terugkeerde bij het eskader. Hij kreeg orders door de zeestraat te varen en die omgeving te onderzoeken, terwijl de Santiago en de Sonora verder noordwaarts voeren. De San Carlos nam lading (onder meer leeftocht) in te Monterey, vertrok van daar op 26 juli en voer verder naar het noorden.
De Ayala passeerde op 5 augustus 1775 de zeestraat die later de Golden Gate zou genoemd worden dit kostte enige moeite vanwege de getijdestromingen. De Ayala probeerde een aantal ankerplaatsen uit, en koos uiteindelijk voor het Ángel-eiland maar het lukte hem niet, zoals hij gehoopt had, in contact te komen met De Anza en zijn manschappen. Hij richtte een houten kruis op, op de plaatst waar hij de eerste nacht had gebivakkeerd en de San Carlos bleef in de baai tot 18 september. Hierna keerde men terug naar San Blas via Monterey. De Ayala's rapport verschafte een volledig overzicht van de geografie van de baai en gaf de voordelen van de baai als haven die hadden vooral betrekking op de afwezigheid van de mist en nevel, die Monteray kenmerkte en de behulpzaamheid van de oorspronkelijke bevolking. De Ayala noemde Alcatraz na de ontdekking daarvan La Isla de los Alcatraces. Alcatraz is een Spaans leenwoord uit het Arabische al-qatras, wat zeearend betekende. Hij refereerde hiermee aan de bruine pelikaan-soorten die daar veel voorkwamen.
Holmes Reaches Pikes Peak!
On August 5, 1858, Julia Archibald Holmes became the first woman on record to reach the summit of Pikes Peak. She, her husband James Holmes, and two others began their trek on August 1. For the ascent, Julia Holmes wore what she called her “American costume” — a short dress, bloomers, moccasins, and a hat. In a letter written to her mother from the summit, she said:
“I have accomplished the task which I marked out for myself…Nearly everyone tried to discourage me from attempting it, but I believed that I should succeed…”
A Bloomer Girl on Pike’s Peak, 1858: Julia Archibald Holmes, First White Woman to Climb Pike’s Peak. Agnes Wright Spring, ed. Denver: Western History Department, Denver Public Library, 1949), 39.
Pikes Peak Panorama. H. (Henry) Wellge Milwaukee, Wis., American Publishing Co. . Panoramic Maps. Geography & Map Division
Pikes Peak takes its name from Lieutenant Zebulon Pike, who, fifty years prior to Holmes’ ascent, led an expedition to reconnoiter the southwestern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. In November 1806, Pike, with a small party, began an ascent of the peak. Weather conditions forced them to abandon their frustrating attempt to climb to the summit.
A Pike’s Peak Prospector. William Henry Jackson, photographer, ca. 1900. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division
In 1820, during the administration of President James Monroe, another party, under Major Stephen H. Long, was sent to explore this area. Dr. Edwin James, historian of Long’s expedition, led the first recorded ascent of Pikes Peak in July of that year.
When gold was discovered in Colorado in 1858, the phrase “Pikes Peak or Bust” entered American parlance. Pikes Peak was used as verbal shorthand for a vast area in the general range of the peak presumed to be rich in gold. In 1891, the year of the discovery of the great gold field at Cripple Creek, the Pikes Peak cog railroad began operating.
Katharine Lee Bates’ 1893 climb to the top of Pikes Peak inspired her to compose a poem. Her text, later set to music, is the beloved American hymn, “America, the Beautiful,” which vied with “The Star-Spangled Banner” to become the national anthem:
The mountain of the Holy Cross, Colorado. Thomas Moran, artist: L. Prang & Co., c1876. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division
O beautiful for spacious skies,
for amber waves of grain
For purple mountain majesties
Above the fruited plain!
America! America! God shed his grace on thee
And crown thy good with brotherhood
From sea to shining sea!
The advent of the automobile brought more visitors to Pikes Peak. Capitalizing on this phenomenon, Spencer Penrose built a toll road, completed in 1915, for auto travel to the top of Pikes Peak. The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb, started in 1916 to commemorate the opening of the highway, continues to be a grueling challenge to race car enthusiasts.
Today, Pikes Peak is easy to access by trail, railroad, or car. Located in the southeastern corner of the Pike National Forest, it is one of more than 50 peaks in Colorado that are at least 14,000 feet high.
Juan de Urruela naît au Guatemala au sein d'une famille d'origine espagnole. Son arrière-grand-père, José Eleuterio de Urruela, originaire de Retes de Llanteno, province d'Álava, avait émigré dans les colonies espagnoles d'Amérique centrale au XVIII e siècle.
Au cours de sa jeunesse, Juan de Urruela décide d'aller vivre en Europe et de s'établir à Barcelone. En 1907, il se marie avec Agueda Sanllehy i Girona, fille des marquis de Caldas de Montbuy.
En 1916, le roi Alfonso XIII rétablit en sa faveur le marquisat de San Román de Ayala, titre qui avait appartenu à ses ancêtres. En 1919, il est nommé Mayordomo de semana du monarque espagnol. La même année, sa sœur Isabel de Urruela reçoit le titre de marquise de Retes.
Juan de Urruela a six enfants : María, Isabel, Mercedes, Agueda, María Teresa et José Luis, qui hérite du marquisat de San Román de Ayala du côté de son père et du marquisat de Retes de la part de sa tante. Parmi les descendants actuels, on trouve son arrière-petite-fille Ágatha Ruiz de la Prada.
Carrière sportive Modifier
Juan de Urruela entre dans l'histoire en tant que premier gardien de but du FC Barcelone. Il joue le premier match de l'histoire du club le 8 décembre 1899 au Vélodrome de Bonanova face à la colonie anglaise barcelonaise. Malgré la défaite par 1 à 0 du Barça, le compte-rendu du journal La Vanguardia publié le jour suivant met en valeur le bon match d'Urruela : « Dès les premières actions, Messieurs Harry Gamper, capitaine, Urruela, Lomba et Wild se distinguèrent par leur talent à mener la balle.[. ]Je ne peux conclure sans faire une mention spéciale d'un point très disputé sauvé par le «goal-keeper» du «Barcelona Club», Monsieur Urruela, qui fut salué par les applaudissements du public, enthousiasmé par la véhémence avec laquelle il défendait sa cage. »
Juan de Urruela participe aussi aux trois matchs suivants du FC Barcelone, deux d'entre eux comme joueur de champ : le 24 décembre face au Català (3-1) et le 26 décembre lors de la revanche contre la colonie anglaise (2-1). Finalement, il est gardien le 6 janvier 1900 de nouveau face aux Anglais (0-3).
Par la suite, il pratique également le tennis et le polo au Real Club de Polo.List of site sources >>>